Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain are complex vascular tangles with high blood flow and they are challenging lesions to treat. AVMs are not tumors nor cancers (non-neoplastic) vascular anomalies; Yet they may grow over the years and these blood filled immature tangles of vessels may rupture and cause massive blood clots in brain (hematoma, subarachnoid bleeding, intraventricular bleeding).

AVMs sometimes may give symptoms by the mass effect they cause on the adjacent brain substance-i.e, epilepsy, weakness, headache, imbalance, etc. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standart procedure in the diagnosis of AVMs while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) are complimentary diagnostic tools.

Micro-neurosurgical removal of these abnormal vessel clusters is the best and most effective treatment in well-trained hands. Endovascular treatment (blocking of the feeder arteries via tiny catheters) and gamma knife surgery (focused gamma rays on AVM) can be also applied in some instances.